Philly Flashbacks

The odd, the interesting and the downright ridiculous.

Lost Philadelphia “1700”

Phila 1700 sign

YE OLDE PHILADELPHIA 

Philadelphia has a special connection to the 18th century, and with good reason. After all, during the 1700s Philadelphia was home to Franklin, Jefferson, Washington and Adams, it was the birthplace of America, and it served as the federal  capital.  Since that golden century, Philadelphia has repeatedly taken its important role in American history and mythologized, commercialized and repackaged  it. In 1965, while Ed Bacon was busy refashioning Society Hill, that urge to capitalize on the city’s past took the form of a complex called “Philadelphia 1700,see the two views below, built off Delaware Avenue, one block north of Spring Garden Street, on Pier 37 and owned by Alfred M. Johnson.

Phila 1700 PC Fr

Philadelphia 1700 Photo

Philadelphia 1700’s advertising ran like this:

Visit this delightful re-creation of Philadelphia’s colonial seaport.  Dine and shop amid the surroundings of an earlier day. Seafood and steaks served in a true maritime surrounding.

The “true maritime surrounding,” below, included bright red tablecloths, wall to wall carpeting, spindle backed captains chairs and a buffet served from a lifeboat.

Phila 1700 restaurant

The rest of the complex was made up of various “shoppes” and businesses, including a blacksmith, a candle-maker a baker and a small tobacco shop. In 1965, that particular shop gained notoriety when the owner, Stephen Weinstein, was involved in the gristly murder of a male customer who inflamed him to an “irresistible sexual impulse,” by wearing tight fitting Levi’s.

The sonja

To complete the old timey atmosphere, a four-masted early 20th century Swedish schooner, “The Sonja,” above, was docked on the north side of the pier. The Sonja served as a floating cocktail lounge. It sat in the dock for a few years after the 1700 complex closed, forlorn and abandoned. In 1975 it was damaged by fire and later that year was struck by a freighter and heavily damaged to the point where it could no longer be restored.

The Philadelphia “1700” complex lasted about 6 years, closing down some time in 1971.

de_1

DINNER AND A SHOW

me0N7xb1AHnpHPJ9jRfTr-gIn 1972, the pier became home to the 520 seat Riverfront Restaurant & Dinner Theatre, left, and The Admiral’s Club, a private dining facility. Both were owned and operated by the Tabas family, who had a dominant interest in Royal Bank and ran the Downingtown Inn and Twelve Caesars on City Line Avenue. There’s a great web page about a production of Guys and Dolls presented there in 1978-9: http://www.actorr.com/guysand.htm. The last curtain rang down at the Riverfront Restaurant in 1993, after a dinner show production of the musical revue “Ain’t Misbehavin’.” For the next 10 years, the site remained largely unused.

wsq-aerial

WATERFRONT SQUARE TODAY

In 2004, work was begun at Piers 36-39 on what is now Waterfront Square, above, a five tower gated condominium community covering  9.6 acres.  The buildings range from 22 to 35 stories comprising 780 condominium units. With amenities like valet parking, a fitness facility, spa, pool and private clubhouse within the complex, residences are marketed “to people who want to live in the city but feel as though they are living or on a vacation at a private resort.”

Except for a few postcard images, all traces of Philadelphia “1700” are gone.

Please do let me know if you’ve been to Philadelphia “1700” complex, or if you know anything more about it.

Many thanks to reader Eric Staudt, who very kindly shared this picture, below, of himself standing on the stocks at Philadelphia “1700” in 1966.

EricStaudt

Thanks!

The last word in ugliness. Really.

ca 1910 Independence Square

In the photo, above, taken in the early 1920s, you can see the dark ghost of the footprint of a demolished building, just to the south of Congress Hall and just across from the new Public Ledger Building. (Click on this, or any photo, to see a larger image.) Today, there’s no trace of it at all, but, for about 40 years, the city’s much maligned “New Courthouse” stood on that spot.

THE NEW COURTHOUSE
In December, 1865, after lengthy debate, the Philadelphia City Councils approved an ordinance which provided $35,000 for the erection of “a building on on Sixth Street, below Chestnut, to be used as the Court House for the Quarter Sessions.” Only ten weeks later, ground was broken for what was to be called the “New Courthouse;” the old one was Congress Hall, then being used by the county. See the 1895 map, below.

1895 I Square Court House

Only a few days after the groundbreaking, John McArthur Jr., who would later design Philadelphia’s new City Hall, presented an objection. He argued that any construction would be in direct violation of an 1816 law, which had granted the use of the land as perpetual open ground, and stipulated that no building be erected there, but that it “Shall be enclosed and remain Public Green and Walk for ever.” Oddly enough, this is the same John McArthur Jr. who, in 1870, came up with the design, below, for a new City Hall on Independence Square that would have filled the entire block, swallowing everything except for the State House.

090503_cityhall_model

DANCE 10, LOOKS 3

As the building neared completion in 1867, the Inquirer’s assessment of the New Courthouse was mixed:

The new Court House, although not presenting a very imposing appearance so far as the exterior is concerned, will nevertheless give us a court room as complete as any in the State. The first floor is devoted to the Grand Jury and the Clerk of Court. On the south side are two offices for the District Attorney, a male and female witness room, and one large room for the Grand Jury. On the north side is a private office for the Clerk of Quarter Sessions.

1898 New CourthouseThe “New Courthouse” in 1895, looking north east.
The rear of Congress Hall is visible to the left. *

Throughout the second half of the 19th century, the New Courthouse served not only as home to the Court of Quarter Sessions, but as the meeting place for the Public Buildings Commission, formed to oversee the construction of the new City Hall in Penn Square. Thirty-three years after completion, the building was used as the headquarters for the sergeant-at-arms of the Republican National Convention. In 1921, while restoration work was being done on Old City Hall, a tunnel was discovered that ran from the prisoner holding cells there all the way across the square to the New Courthouse.

1900 New CourthouseThe New Courthouse in 1900, to the right, behind Congress Hall *

By the late 1890s, most city court functions had moved to the new Public Buildings at Penn Square. In its final role, the Old Courthouse served as the home of the 12,000 volume Library of the Law Department of the University of Pennsylvania, below. The library was moved to West Philadelphia when the new Law Department Building (Silverman Hall) was completed in 1900.  The barn-like old court house was demolished soon after.

1897 Dept of Law

Many plans for Independence Square called for demolishing everything but Independence Hall. Luckily, preservationists were beginning to realize the historical significance of all the structures on the square. The building on the upper right, in the 1897 map above, is no longer called “The County Courthouse,” but is labelled as the “First Senate and First House of Representatives of the U.S.” The demolition began and ended with the 19th century offices that had been added to either side of Independence Hall and the much maligned and now unnecessary “New Courthouse.” If reaction to the building’s design had been lukewarm before, judgment became even harsher after its destruction. In 1909, the Inquirer wrote:

The Civil War stands as a great dividing line between the aesthetic in architecture and the grossly material. A fine example of the progressive decay used to be afforded by a comparison between the State House with its many fine characteristics and the “New Court House” on Sixth Street, which was the last word in ugliness.

A year later, the paper recalled it “was constructed on the principles of a rural barn.”

* * *

*I first noticed the New Courthouse on the 1895 map on the wonderful Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network website. Photos or illustrations of the building were very difficult to find. Many thanks to Andrea Ashby, the Library Technician at the Library and Archives at Independence National Historical Park, for the two rare photos, above.

Show Me the Benjamins: Franklin on Stage, Screen & in Print

Benjamin

HEALTHY, WEALTHY, WISE…AND FAMOUS, TO BOOT

Who’s Philadelphia’s most iconic homeboy? Without a doubt, it’s longtime favorite Ben Franklin. We have a bridge, a parkway, a science museum, a city square and an ice cream fountain named after him. Honest Quaker William Penn may look down benevolently from City Hall over the city he founded, but it’s Ben that tourists line up to learn about at the new underground museum at Franklin Court. Even in his own lifetime, Franklin was arguably the most well known American citizen, beloved by his countrymen and by French ladies alike. If anything set some people against him, it might have been that he enjoyed all that wealth and fame a bit too much.

HANDS ACROSS THE SEA, 1911

Franklin was a shrewd statesman, always keenly aware of the image he projected. He’d no doubt be pleased to see himself represented so often on movie and television screens in the twentieth century. In 1911, Franklin appeared as a character in a silent film called “Hands Across the Sea,” which featured several tableaux from the American Revolution. The director staged Franklin in a re-creation of the widely distributed 19th century lithograph of his reception at the court of France in 1778, receiving the “Laurel Wreath of Enlightenment” before Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette:

1911 Hands Across the Sea in '76

Dorothy Gibson played Diane de Polignac, holding the wreath, above.  Just a year after filming this scene, Gibson would earn  national fame for surviving the sinking of the Titanic. She and her friends who had been playing bridge in the salon escaped in lifeboat #7, the first one launched.

MARIE ANTOINETTE, 1938

Walter Walker, who made a career of playing old-timers usually called “Pop,” had a one scene walk-on role as Dr. Franklin in the 1938 Norma Shearer and Tyrone Power extravaganza “Marie Antoinette”:

Franklin 1938

BEN AND ME, 1953

In 1953’s “Ben and Me,” Franklin became an animated cartoon character, voiced over by Charles Ruggles and accompanied by a mouse named Amos, played by the gravelly voiced Sterling Holloway. The movie was based on Robert Lawson’s 1939 children’s book of the same name:

ROYAL AFFAIRS IN VERSAILLES, 1954

In this star studded Franch production, it was the illustrious, but glum looking Orson Welles who made an appearance as Benjamin Franklin:

1954 Orson Welles - Royal Affairs in Versailles

JOHN PAUL JONES, 1959

Robert Stack played John Paul Jones in this technicolor epic biography, with a cameo by Bette Davis as Catherine the Great. Character actor Charles Coburn played a Cowardly Lion look-alike Franklin, who urged  Jones to invade Britain:

1959 Charles Coburn J P Jones

Jones, a great admirer of Franklin, would rename his warship the “Bonhomme Richard” to honor the Richard Saunders character of Franklin’s “Poor Richard’s Almanac.”

LAFAYETTE, 1961

Orson Welles, speaking very badly accented French, played Franklin one more time in this Franco-Italian biography of the Marquis de Lafayette:

1961 Orson Welles -  Lafayette

I DREAM OF FRANKLIN, 1966

Ben makes a surprising appearance on TV’s “I Dream of Jeannie,” when Jeannie (Barbara Eden) conjured up Cleopatra, Henry VII and Franklin, played by Bart Green, for a birthday celebration:

1966 I Dream of Jeannie

The ageless Ms. Eden, is, in fact,  a direct descendent of the real Benjamin Franklin.

MY FRIEND, BEN, 1966

Franklin, this time played by Fredd Wayne, maked a TV appearance again only a few weeks later, when the perpetually befuddled Aunt Clara conjured him up for an entire episode of “Bewitched:”

1776, 1972

As the Bicentennial approached, Ben made his most well known appearance in the musical “1776.” Howard da Silva survived Hollywood blacklisting in the 1950s to play Franklin in both the stage and film versions:

1972 1776 Howard da Silva

I’m fairly certain the scene above was filmed in front of the copy of Independence Hall at Knott’s Berry Farm in Buena Park, California. (Scroll down to the “Sincerest Form of Flattery” blog post to learn more about the many ersatz Independence Halls.)

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 1975

A different actor played Franklin in each of the four episodes of of this TV series about his life: Willie Ames (from “Charles in Charge”), Eddie Albert (of “Green Acres fame),  TV and film actor Richard Widmark, and Melvyn Douglas as the elder Franklin, “The Statesman”:

1975 Melvyn Douglas - The Statesman TV

AMERICA: A CALL TO GREATNESS, 1995

This reverent TV docu-drama featured an array of well known stars as narrators: Charlton Heston, Rita Moreno, Gene Autry, Jane Russell, Peter Graves and Mickey Rooney, with Rutherford Cravens doing a turn as Ben Franklin:

1995 Call to Greatness Rutherford_Cravens

THE OFFICE, 2007

Ben, played by comedian Andrew Daly, shows up in lieu of a male stripper at a bachelorette party for Phyllis:

a daly

JOHN ADAMS, 2008

In the most recent screen incarnation of Franklin, Tom Wilkinson won a Golden Globe Award for his portrayal in the HBO TV series John Adams, based on David McCullough’s book:

2008 tom wilkinson benjamin franklin John Adams

RALPH ARCHBOLD

You can’t swing a kite in Philadelphia without hitting a Franklin re-enactor.  Ralph Archbold has portrayed Dr. Franklin for the past 35 years at countless events in Philadelphia, as well as in many TV spots and documentaries:

Ralph Archbold

In 2007, Archbold  played host for the Subaru of America, Inc. dealer meeting in Philadelphia. “People really seem to get a kick out of seeing me get in my Subaru,” Archbold said. “the All-Wheel Drive is a blessing.”

FRANKLINS GALORE

● An 1870 Japanese woodcut entitled “Furankurin to kaminari no zu” (Franklin and the thunderbolt):

1870 ca Furankurin to kaminari no zu

According to the Library of Congress description: “Print shows a man (Benjamin Franklin) and a woman sitting at a table in a house during a thunderstorm as lightning strikes a length of chain extending from a tub of water on the ground to a rod attached to the peak of a cupola.”

● A panel from a 1984 Kool Aid Man comic book:

1984 Kool Aid Man Benjamin Franklin

You’ll see nothing about Ben’s encounter with ye olde Kool Aid Man at the new Underground Museum at Franklin Court. There is possibly some obscure Illuminati conspiratorial symbolism here.

● The Classics Illustrated “Benjamin Franklin,” first published in 1949:

Classic & Greek Franklin

Used copies sell for $3.00 on Amazon; the Greek edition for $9.95. The mission of Jack Lake Productions, which is now reprinting Classics Illustrated comics, is “to publish and distribute wholesome, nurturing literature to young readers from the ages of 4 to 94 years of age.”

● The Special Edition cover of Time magazine in 2003, from a painting by Michael J. Deas, who also did the Marilyn Monroe postage stamp:

Time_Cover_Ben_Franklin

● A truly bizarre child’s Halloween costume, celebrating the elderly, balding statesman in every American child:

ben-franklin-kid-costume

Back to the Future

In 1987

In September, 1887, the Philadelphia Inquirer used the centennial anniversary of the adoption of the Federal Constitution to look back on what Philadelphia had been in 1787, to analyze and criticize the state of the city in 1887, and to project what it might be like a hundred years in the future. The article was part editorial sermonizing and part wishful thinking. Optimistically foreseeing the end of municipal corruption and the advancement of science, the paper was spot-in in some instances and entirely missed the mark in others. “In 1987,” the Inquirer trumpeted,”once again, Philadelphia is the leading city on the American continent just as it was 200 years ago in 1787.” 

Below is a summation of the two page article, with its original paragraph headings and the charming lithographs representing the Jules Verne-esque Philadelphia of 1987 that the Inquirer artists conceptualized.

Phila 1987 subway

Exit Steam.

Throughout the article, the virtues of the latest technological wonder–electricity– were extolled. Dirty, noisy steam driven trains and steet cars would be replaced by efficient, silent, electrically driven, lightweight aluminum transport fitted with rubber wheels. No more smoke belching from coal and wood fires, no clattering of horse hooves on stone streets, no clanging of trolley bells.  All this was made possible, the Inquirer said, by electricity, and by the cutting edge Keely motor.

keelyJohn Ernst Worrell Keely, left, was a Philadelphia inventor who claimed to have constructed an “etheric generator” that ran only on water which the apparatus would “disintegrate” to produce a mysterious vapor or “ether” that could run powerful machinery. Hopeful investors poured nearly a million dollars into his research. Keely predicted that his new “vacuo-engine” would make all other sources of energy obsolete. Facing legal problems and accused of fraud, Keely died of pneumonia in 1898, having produced nothing. When asked by a friend what epitaph he’d like, John Keely replied, “Keely, the greatest humbug of the 19th century.” There is a model of the Keely engine at the Franklin Institute.

keely stock

A Ship Canal Across Jersey.

In the twentieth century, the Inquirer went on, a wide canal would be cut across southern New Jersey, from Camden to Barnegat Township, and Smith and Windmill Islands in the Delaware River would be dredged away. The resulting increase in maritime traffic would boost Philadelphia to its rightful pre-eminence in America, once eclipsing its rival New York. No canal was ever built, but in 1898 Smith and Windmill Islands, which stood east of Walnut Street, below, were, in fact, removed.

Islands

Palatial Tunnels. Bridge to Camden.

In addition to the trans-New Jersey canal, two tunnels would be dug to Camden, from Moore Street in South Philadelphia and from Lehigh Avenue to the north. A bridge would also finally be constructed, since objections to its impeding ship traffic on the Delaware were dropped when the Keely motor (!) made tall masted sailing ships obsolete.

Phila 1887-1987

Disturbed by the number of tall buildings sprouting up in Philadelphia, the Inquirer also predicted that in 1961 a law would be passed limiting all buildings to 150 feet. These contiguous buildings would surround each block with a continuous roofline and encircle a garden or recreational space in the block’s center. Because of new elevator technology, kitchens could now be installed on the top floor, instead of the basement, alleviating smoke and cooking odors throughout the house. Electric heat meant an end to dirty flues, vents and furnace fumes.

Visitors who arrived in Philadelphia via balloon would be treated to an expanse of marvellous rooftop gardens and restaurants, all equipped with balloon tethering posts, see illustration above.

William Peter Elkiner’s Experiment.

Peter A B WidenerIn this section, the Inquirer addressed the problem of Philadelphia’s city government, one that in the late 19th century was notorious for corruption. The name “William Peter Elkiner” was a conflation of Peter Widener, left, and William Elkiner, below, right, actual Philadelphia business partners, who were two of the wealthiest men in the United States. Widener had served as City Treasurer and used his political influence to gain control of the city’s streetcar system, with his partner, Elkins. He then used his incredible wealth to buy large blocks of stock in the United States Steel Corporation, Standard Oil and the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1887, as this article was being written,  he was completing the construction of a large mansion at North Broad Street and Girard Avenue. It still stands today.

William Lukens ElkinsThe Inquirer took the fictitious “William Peter Elkiner” to task for seeing himself as being above the law, for attempted bribery and for failing to fulfill contracted public duties. However, in the Philadelphia of 1987, said the Inquirer, the mythical Elkiner’s plans to stall the passage of the bill limiting the height of city buildings would be thwarted by city councils and courts that were now staffed by “intelligent and upright citizens.” Not only would Elkiner’s attempts be futile, but the very fact of his opposing the bill would help it to pass more quickly. “The case is dismissed. And that was the end of that.” In 1987, intelligence and morality would replace complacent corruption. If only.

Electric Travel

The Saloon Subsides.

Siding with the Temperance movement, the Inquirer also predicted a national prohibition on liquor in 1904. This prediction wasn’t far off the mark; the Eighteenth Amendment took effect on January 17, 1920. It also predicted a surge in the economy due to the saving of money formerly spent on alcohol and a lessening of crime and therefore of the prison population. Here the paper’s optimism was misplaced. In fact, National Prohibition created a lawless atmosphere and vastly increased criminal activity. Called “the noble experiment,” it was repealed in 1932.

Who Shall Vote.

Constitutional amendments would extend the right to vote to men and women alike,  “but limited it , by well-known restrictions, to those only, of either sex, who were likely to vote intelligently and honestly.” The Inquirer didn’t elaborate on what these “well-known restrictions” were, or how it would be determined who would be likely to vote intelligently and honestly.

1987 Phila

Actual Philadelphia in 1987. The newly completed Liberty Place dominates the skyline.

Philadelphia in 1987.

In general, the article was hopeful in foreseeing that the next 100 years would bring a clean, quiet, comfortable city, a far cry from the noisy, dirty, urban landscape of the late 19th century. The Inquirer wrote:

Machinery does so much that men formerly had to do by their own powers, and does it so much more quickly, that everybody has time for relaxation and mental improvement. A sound mind in a sound body and healthful employment for both will make the possessor happy…amid the comfort and luxuries of the Philadelphia of 1987.

The Sincerest Form of Flattery

YOU CAN’T HAVE TOO MANY INDEPENDENCE HALLS

indhall01

The Lego micro-brick version of Independence Hall, above, reduces Philadelphia’s iconic building to its elementary architectural forms: the formal, red-brick Georgian symmetry, the bell tower with the clock, the balustraded roof and the central entrance way. Even at this micro-scale, this could be nothing else but Independence Hall.

1893 PA

AN ICON IS BORN

Beginning with General Lafayette’s visit in 1824, the building that was commonly known as “The Old State House” in Philadelphia took on a new name and a new symbolism as “Independence Hall.” No longer just an old building,  it now filled a solemn and sacred function as the place where America was born. By the end of the 19th century, it had reached  iconic stature as the most prized emblem of both the city Philadelphia and the state of Pennsylvania. When Pennsylvania participated in the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, it only seemed right that its state building, above, should be a version of Independence Hall, enlarged, surrounded by porches, and adorned with massive Victorian sculptures.

1903 Methodist Orphanage Raleigh NC

The iconography of the Hall shows its influence next in the 1903 Methodist Orphanage in Raleigh, North Carolina, above. The structure was replaced by a modern administration building in 1933 and demolished in the 1980s. I’m not sure how the symbolism of Our Nation’s Birthplace applies to an orphanage, Methodist or otherwise.

The Pennsylvania State building at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, below, was a much closer copy of Independence Hall, reproduced in three-quarter scale, with small porticos added at each end. The porticos vaguely echoed the covered walkways that linked the east and west wings to the original State House. The Reynoldsville, PA Star reported that “Everybody is at home in Independence Hall, because Independence Hall belongs to everybody.”

1907 Jamestown I Hall

Finished in 1915, the Jonathan Maynard building, below, was built as a school in Framingham, MA. It still stands on the Framingham Town Common.

1915 Jonathan Maynard Bldg Framingham

1915 Panama Pacific

For the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, Pennsylvania turned to the old State House again for inspiration for its state building. This time, it left off the tower entirely and added a two story open loggia along the façade, above, which the Official Guide claimed “was closely copied from the central portion of Independence Hall.” California state senator A. E. Boynton enthusiastically supported bringing the Liberty Bell out the Exposition, stating “Bringing the Libery Bell out here will give us, here on the western coast of the country, a chance to see an object that all patriotic Americans wish to view. Building a replica of Independence Hall will complete the picture.” Touted as “The Nation’s Most Treasured Relic,” the Liberty Bell left Philadelphia for the last time on July 6, 1915, to travel by train on a nationwide tour, then displayed in a steel vault within the building.

A HALL OF LEARNING

Dartmouth was one of the first universities to model a campus building after Independence Hall. Its Baker Memorial Library, below, opened in 1928. From the 1920s through the 1950s, the formal dignity of Georgian architecture seemed particularly appropriate for America’s academic buildings.

1928 Baker Mem Library Dartmouth

INDEPENDENCE HALL II

When industrialist Henry Ford constructed a museum complex in Dearborn, Michigan in 1929, his centerpiece, below, was the first exact replica of Independence Hall constructed anywhere. Except for the vast expanse of lawns, it could easily be mistaken for the original.

Henry Ford Museum

1930 Lowell House

From 1920 to World War II, nostalgic Colonial Revival architecture showed that futuristic Art Deco was not the only game in town. Harvard University’s Lowell House, above, was built in 1930. Even chain restaurants like Howard Johnson’s, below, sprouted Independence Hall inspired central cupolas.

1930s HoJos

In New York, Brooklyn College continued the patriotic trend in academic architecture when it modeled its 1935 LaGuardia Hall library building, below, after Independence Hall.

1935 LaGuardia Hall library Brooklyn College

1937 saw the construction of  Draper Hall at Berea College, below. The tower was remodeled in 2000 to hold a 56 bell, 11 ton carillon, the largest in Kentucky.

1937 Draper Hall Berea College KY

1937 also saw the cornerstone laid for The Founders Library, below,  at historically black Howard University in Washington D.C., built under the supervision of African American architect Albert I. Cassell.  When asked about its resemblance to Independence Hall, Louis Frye, an employee of Cassell, said “since the Library was dedicated to liberty, there was no more appropriate design for Howard University’s major building to emulate.”

Founders Hall

ANOTHER WOLD’S FAIR

For the 1939 New York World’s Fair, Pennsylvania eschewed the sleek Streamline Moderne style that characterized much of that fair’s architecture and again turned to Independence Hall for its state building, below.

1939 Worlds Fair

Here’s a description from the 1939 World’s Fair Guide Book:

An exact model of Philadelphia’s famous Independence Hall, the Exhibit comprises displays which are modern in spirit. In the center of the tower-entrance, the visitor sees an enlarged replica of the Liberty Bell, while to the left and right, walls are draped with the flags of the 48 states. . . From the Unity Bridge, a curved steel structure suspended from the ceiling, the visitor is provided with a clear view of displays in both the Hall of Democracy and the Hall of Tradition.

TIME STANDS STILL

Bellarmine- Jeffeson Catholic High School in Brubank, California, below, opened its doors in 1944. Not only is the façade of the main building inspired by Independence Hall, but the tower clock facing east is permanently set at 8:00 pm to commemorate the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The clock facing west is permanently set for 4:00 pm, the hour that the Constitution of the United States was signed on September 17, 1787.

Bellarmine-Jefferson High School at Olive Avenue and Fifth Street, in Burbank.

OKLAHOMA GEORGIAN

The Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University opened its doors in 1953. Unlike its inspiration in Philadelphia, the library has six floors and contains over two and a half million books.

architecture; campus; edmon low; library; sunrise; spring; hero

In 1958, the Moose Association built this modest version of Independence Hall, below, at its Mooseheart, Illinois headquarters, making the stolid patriotism of the Loyal Order of Moose unquestionable. Both Bud Abbott and Lou Costello were Moose members.

1958 Moose Association Mooseheart

Our neighboring state, Delaware, got its own Independence Hall when it built Independence Mall, below. Billed as “a place to make your own history,” it opened next to a cemetery in Wilmington on July 4, 1964.

1964 Ind Mall Delaware

INDEPENDENCE HALL III, OR IS IT IV?

1966 Knotts Berry Farm

Not to be outdone by Henry Ford, Walter Knott made sure that his 160 acre Knott’s Berry Farm, which opened in 1966 in Buena Park, California, had its own Independence Hall, above. Knott’s claims that it’s the “only brick by brick replica of the original,” although its Liberty Bell, which sits in the vestibule of the building, weighs five pounds less than the one in Philadelphia. In 1979, the Knott’s location was used to film “The Rebels,” for TV, with Tom Bosley as Benjamin Franklin, below. Photo courtesy  Orange County Archives.

Tom Bosley 1979

Here’s a Bank of America, below, complete with a drive through window. It’s in Portland, Oregon. Of course.

Portland Oregon

Just last year, this Independence Bouncy Hall, below, showed up at the Gilbert, Arizona Constitution Fair. Let Freedom Bounce!

2012 Gilbert AZ  Constitution Fair

THE SHAPE OF THINGS TO COME

The proposed design for the new American Revolution Center on Third Street, below, features a cupola, “echoing but not reproducing the cupola of Independence Hall,” says architect Robert A.M. Stern. The low slung façade is of conservative red brick with mullioned windows and a row of arches topped with keystones. PlanPhilly called Stern’s traditionalist offering “just one more pale imitation of the great Independence Hall.”

museum-articleLarge

These are just a handful of the many replicas and buildings inspired by Philadelphia’s Independence Hall that dot our national landscape. I’d bet there’s one in every state, including Alaska and Hawaii. Let me know if you know of others.

* * *

For a fine history of the Hall and its iconography, I recommend reading “Independence Hall in American Memory,” by Charlene Mires: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Philadelphia’s Once & Almost Washington Monument

Washington Monument 1833

In 1824, Philadelphians were all astir over the visit by the Marquis de Lafayette, one of the last surviving heroes of the Revolution. That same year, in a wave of patriotic fervor, the five public squares in of William Penn’s “Greene Countrie Towne” were renamed in honor of luminaries of Philadelphia’s colonial past. The scruffy southeast park near the Old State House was renamed Washington Square. On October 5th, a group of citizens meeting at the Merchant’s Coffee House resolved to raise a monument to George Washington in the newly re-named park, “in profound veneration of his character and in admiration of his exemplary virtues.”  They further resolved that none other than General Lafayette himself would do to lay the cornerstone. Seven months later, fundraising was going very slowly and no design had yet been chosen. Lafayette would visit Chestnut Hill and Germantown in 1825, but skipped over Philadelphia, never to return.

After Lafayette’s departure, the city’s patriotic urges cooled and the project languished for years. In 1832, the planning committee was resurrected, including some of the original members – Charles Ingersoll, William Strickland, Nicholas Biddle, and Charles Penrose as well as the Society of the Cincinnati.  In 1833, architect William Strickland submitted the widely admired design, above, for a grand Washington Monument to grace the center of Washington Square. A ceremonial cornerstone cornerstone was even laid on February 22, 1833.

In 1840, with nothing more than that cornerstone having materialized, the concept for the monument morphed into an equestrian statue of Mr. Washington, to be executed by the British-American sculptor Ball Hughes. A model of his proposed design was even displayed in Independence Hall along with several other designs. However, the project dragged on, hampered by the effects of the Panic of 1837 and the collapse of Biddle’s Second Bank of the United States in 1841. In 1842, Hughes moved his family to Boston, where he found work. Eventually, the Washington Square project was eclipsed by the proposal for a national monument in the nation’s capital.  The great obelisk in Washington D.C. was begun in 1848 and Philadelphia’s own plan for an imposing Washington Monument was never realized.

* * *

In 1957, the Washington Square Planning Committee built the present “Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier” in the west end of the park and erected the modest bronze cast of Jean-Antoine Houdon’s life-sized statue of Washington. The Carrara marble original is in the rotunda of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond; ours is only one of more than twenty other copies that exist around the world, from Oshkosh, Wisconsin to Lima, Peru.

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